Now in its Fourth Edition, this text is a practical, heavily illustrated guide to procedures in cardiac surgery. Chapters cover acquired and congenital diseases and include surgical anatomy, surgical exposures, and step-by-step procedural details. The authors indicate pitfalls with a hazard sign and flag points of special interest with "NB"(Nota Bene). This edition has contributions from Abbas Ardehali, MD, FACS, the director of the UCLA heart, heart-lung, and lung transplant program. Highlights include a new chapter on heart transplantation. Also included are updates in minimally invasive surgery and vascular and endovascular surgery.